Gold and silver factions in some states, such as Bryan's Nebraska, sent rival delegations to the convention.  Bryan was urged by Senator Jones to allow it, but refused, stating that if his boom would not last overnight, it would never last until November. The "cross of gold" button is a reference to Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan's speech in favor of silver coinage, the convention address that won him the party's nomination for president. , The 1896 Democratic convention opened at the Chicago Coliseum on July 7, 1896. It was not in any concerted or open action, however, that Bryan had his strength; it was in the friendly predisposition of the mass of the delegates that he had hopes.. In January 1791, at the request of Congress, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton issued a report on the currency. He also proposed the establishment of a mint, at which citizens could present gold or silver, and receive it back, struck into money. How Can Tradingsim Help? As yet, no one at the convention had effectively spoken for that cause, which was paramount to the delegates. Russell's address was inaudible to most of the Coliseum; he was ill and died just over a week later.  According to political scientist Richard F. Bensel in his study of the 1896 Democratic convention, "Although the silver men knew they would win this fight, they nonetheless needed someone to tell them—and the gold men—why they must enshrine silver at the heart of the platform. We have petitioned, and our petitions have been scorned; we have entreated, and our entreaties have been disregarded; we have begged, and they have mocked when our calamity came. At the end of the speech, he stretched his arms out as if he were nailed to a cross of gold -- but not the likes of this bejeweled one! , Delegates, as they waited for the committees to complete their work, spent much of the first two days listening to various orators. His historic “Cross of Gold” speech, delivered prior to his nomination, criticized supporters of the gold standard for U.S. currency, which he believed benefited the wealthy at the expense of the average worker. Recorded in 1921, the speech was originally delivered before the democratic convention in 1896 and highlights the politician's not only populist stance, but his strong position on the issue of the "Gold-Standard." The Washington Post newspaper recorded, "bedlam broke loose, delirium reigned supreme. Standing upon this victory-crowned summit, will it turn its face to the rising or the setting sun? As a Democratic member of the Ways and Means Committee through two Congresses, Mr. Bryan was by all odds the ablest and strongest orator on the Democratic side of the House. Gave “Cross of Gold Speech” National Democratic Convention. , The debate on the platform opened at the start of the third day of the convention, July 9, 1896. , The Bimetallic Committee carefully planned to take control of every aspect of the convention, eliminating any threat that the minority gold faction could take power. He mocked McKinley, said by some to resemble Napoleon, noting that he was nominated on the anniversary of the Battle of Waterloo. Among those who spoke against the repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act was Nebraska Congressman William Jennings Bryan. The government pledged to stand behind the silver dollars and treasury notes issued under the act by redeeming them in gold. In this environment, enter William Steinway and his aggressive politics. Critics contended that the inflation which would follow the introduction of such a policy would harm workers, whose wages would not rise as fast as prices would, and the operation of Gresham's law would drive gold from circulation, effectively placing the United States on a silver standard. Bryan consented, on condition that his own time was extended by the same amount; this was agreed to. , Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the laboring interests, and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: "You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. William Jennings Bryan, Populist leader and orator who ran unsuccessfully three times for U.S. president (1896, 1900, and 1908).  On the second ballot, Bryan still stood second, but had gained as other candidates had fallen away. “I would be presumptuous, indeed, to present myself against the distinguished gentlemen to whom you have listened if this was a mere measuring of abilities; but this is not a contest between persons.” “Our war is not a war of conquest; we are fighting in the defense of our homes, The Republicans gained control of the House, as well as the Senate, which until 1913 was elected by the state legislatures rather than by the popular vote.  Well aware of the overwhelming forces against them, many gold delegates were inclined to concede the platform battle. Bryan Speaks - An Excerpt from Bryan's 1920 Recording  Throughout the speech, Bryan had the delegates in the palm of his hand; they cheered on cue. This legislation defined a unit of value for the new nation, to be known as a dollar. The galleries were filled with white as spectators waved handkerchiefs, and it was several minutes before he could continue. " Bryan would say little that he had not said before—the text is similar to that of a speech he had given the previous week at Crete, Nebraska—but he would give the convention its voice. FREE Delivery by Amazon +14 colours/patterns VNOX. The silver men were thus in the hunt for a charismatic leader who would underpin what they already desperately wanted to believe. My God!".  Historian R. Hal Williams suggested that the opposite philosophy, of legislation for the masses leading to prosperity for all, advocated by Bryan in his speech, informed the domestic policies of later Democratic presidents, including Franklin Roosevelt with his New Deal..  However, part of his strategy was to remain inconspicuous until the last possible moment at the convention. If they dare to come out in the open field and defend the gold standard as a good thing, we will fight them to the uttermost.  Author and political commentator William Safire, in his political dictionary, traced the term "trickle-down economics" (common in the Reagan era) to Bryan's statement that some believe that government should legislate for the wealthy, and allow prosperity to "leak through" on those below.  He soon retired from the convention, returning to his hotel to await the outcome. Ottonian art is a style in pre-romanesque German art, covering also some works from the Low Countries, northern Italy and eastern France.It was named by the art historian Hubert Janitschek after the Ottonian dynasty which ruled Germany and northern Italy between 919 and 1024 under the kings Henry I, Otto I, Otto II, Otto III and Henry II. With far less money than McKinley, Bryan embarked on a nationwide campaign tour by train on a then-unprecedented scale. ", As Russell concluded, to strong applause from gold delegates, there was a buzz of anticipation as Bryan ascended to the podium. In 1939, the movie changed the silver slippersinto ruby slippers. Therefore, we care not upon what lines the battle is fought. This advocated for bimetallism, or the use of both gold … However, he lost the general election to William McKinley, and the United States formally adopted the gold standard in 1900. , The balloting began the following morning, July 10, with a two-thirds vote necessary to nominate. According to Jones, it was clear that Bland could not win, and that Bryan could not be stopped. His sympathetic comparison contrasted the hardworking farmer with the city businessman, whom Bryan cast as a gambler.  Bryan's lecture tours had left him a well-known spokesman for silver. From the cross-bar of the spear was suspended a cloth, a royal piece, covered with a profuse embroidery of most brilliant precious stones; and being richly interlaced with gold it presented an indescribable beauty to the beholder. We do not come as aggressors. The Cross of Gold speech was delivered by William Jennings Bryan, a former United States Representative from Nebraska, at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago on July 9, 1896. The humblest citizen in all the land when clad in the armor of a righteous cause is stronger than all the whole hosts of error that they can bring. Learn cross of gold speech with free interactive flashcards. The "Cross of Gold Speech" is William Jennings Bryan's most well-known political speech. Having behind us the producing masses of this nation and the world, supported by the commercial interests, the laboring interests and the toilers everywhere, we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying to them: You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns!  However, Barnes deemed the actions by the committee immaterial to the outcome due to the silver strength in the convention: Anyone who doubts the power the silverites were ready to unleash in a disciplined and irresistible attack needs only to read the results of the election of temporary chairman.  According to Bensel, the self-deprecation helped disarm the delegates. Even so, in 1900, Congress passed the Gold Standard Act, formally placing the United States on that standard. A speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago that occurred in 1896. cannot have high inflation; (2) any BOP disequilibrium can be corrected automatically through cross-border flows of gold. Choose from 500 different sets of cross of gold speech us all flashcards on Quizlet. 99.  Silver forces were supported by the Democratic National Bimetallic Committee, the umbrella group formed in 1895 to support silver Democrats in their insurgency against Cleveland. Another reporter approached him and asked him who he thought would win the nomination.  The DNC's action could be reversed, but not until the convention's credentials committee reported.  The St. Louis Post-Dispatch opined that with the speech, Bryan "just about immortalized himself". Although Bryan ran again on a silver platform in the 1900 presidential election, the issue failed to produce the same resonance with the voters. , Bryan believed that he could, if nominated, unite the disaffected behind a strong silver campaign. The legislation also established the Mint of the United States. It made no secret of these preparations. The gold standard assumed the United States had enough gold to back up all its currency in circulation, which meant currency was n… The task of relieving the jobless fell to churches and other charities, as well as to labor unions. The policemen were swept away by the flood of delegates, who raised Bryan to their shoulders and carried him around the floor. , Despite the desire of silver delegates to nominate a candidate who shared their beliefs, and although several states instructed their delegates to vote for a specific candidate, there was no overwhelming favorite for the nomination going into the convention. The sympathies of the Democratic Party, as shown by the platform, are on the side of the struggling masses, who have ever been the foundation of the Democratic Party.. Michael W. Smith / 麥可史密斯 Change Your World ℗ 1992 Reunion Records, Inc. This takeover was considered far more important than was the choice of presidential candidate, and the committee decided to take no position on who should win the race for the nomination, reasoning that the victor, no matter who he was, would be a silver man. Circulars were being distributed in Illinois, and admirers in Nebraska, North Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and other states were urging his selection among their friends. These were the only two candidates to put together organizations to try to secure delegate votes, though both efforts were cash-starved. As the gold men spoke, Bryan ate a sandwich to settle his stomach; he was often nervous before major speeches. Bryan's speeches evolved over time; in December 1894, in a speech in Congress, he first used a phrase from which would come the conclusion to his most famous address: as originally stated, it was "I will not help to crucify mankind upon a cross of gold. “Cross of Gold” speech until 1921, when, at the age of 61, Bryan recorded the speech in a studio. The platform would symbolize the repudiation of Cleveland and his policies after the insurgents' long struggle, and Bryan was determined to close the debate on the platform. The inflation that would result from the silver standard … The humblest citizen in all the land, when clad in the armor of a righteous cause, is stronger than all the hosts of error. , According to the New York World, "Lunacy having dictated the platform, it was perhaps natural that hysteria should evolve the candidate. , Now, Bryan was ready to conclude the speech, and according to his biographer, Michael Kazin, step "into the headlines of American history". Once the convention came to order, Arkansas Senator James K. Jones, chair of the Committee on Resolutions, read the proposed platform to cheers by many delegates; the reading of the pro-gold minority report attracted less applause. " Bryan's words gave rise to later economic and political philosophies, including Huey Long's 1930s Share Our Wealth program, with its trigger phrase, "Every Man a King" inspired by Bryan's speech. Governmental response to this shortage was hampered by the fact that officials did not clearly understand what had happened.  Bryan spoke on silver throughout the campaign; he rarely addressed other issues. However, he stated, facing towards the gold delegates, "when you come before us and tell us that we are about to disturb your business interests, we reply that you have disturbed our business interests by your course. Although he would only be 36 years old in 1896—one year above the constitutional minimum—he believed the silver question could carry him not only to the nomination, but to the presidency. I would be presumptuous, indeed, to present myself against the distinguished gentlemen to whom you have listened if this were but a measuring of ability; but this is not a contest among persons.  The convention passed the platform in Bryan's absence and recessed. Blessed is the man who perseveres under trial, because when he has stood the test, he will receive the crown of life that God has promised to those who love him. Will it choose blessings or cursings—life or death—which? Of these, only Senator Blackburn, a silver supporter, sparked much reaction, and that only momentary. The Democratic party has won the greatest success in its history. Get it Tomorrow, Jan 13. He stood second out of fourteen candidates in the first ballot, behind Bland. In the address, Bryan supported bimetallism or "free silver", which he believed would bring the nation prosperity. At the time, there was no mint in the United States; foreign coins were used. , Bryan arrived quietly and took rooms at a modest hotel; the Nebraskan later calculated that he spent less than $100 while in Chicago. Pursuant to this promise, government gold reserves dwindled over the following three years. Nevertheless, he won the nomination without the votes of the gold delegates, most of whom either left the convention or refused to vote.  In his conclusion, Bryan reached back in history: When a crisis like the present arose and the national bank of his day sought to control the politics of the nation, God raised up an Andrew Jackson, who had the courage to grapple with that great enemy, and by overthrowing it, he made himself the idol of the people and reinstated the Democratic party in public confidence. Our ancestors, when but three millions in number, had the courage to declare their political independence of every other nation; shall we, their descendants, when we have grown to seventy millions, declare that we are less independent than our forefathers? In it, Bryan defended “free silver” with biblical references such as “a crown of thorns” and a “cross of gold”. The late 19th century saw divergent views in economics as the laissez-faire orthodoxy was questioned by younger economists, and both sides found ample support for their views from theorists. , Implementation of the Bland–Allison Act did not end calls for free silver.  He received many letters from supporters, expressing their faith in him in stark terms. Bensel ties the delegates' response to Bryan's address to their uncertainty in their own beliefs: In a very real sense, adoption of the silver plank in the platform was akin to a millennial expectation that the "laws of economics" would henceforth be suspended and that the silver men could simply "will" that silver and gold would, in fact, trade on financial markets at a ratio of sixteen to one. It also repealed the statutory provisions allowing silver bullion to be presented to the Mint and returned in the form of circulating money. , From the money plank of the Democratic platform, Good luck favored Bryan—he was considered for various convention roles by the silverites, but each time was not selected. Despite vocal opposition led by Tennessee Representative (and future president) Andrew Johnson, the precious metal content of smaller silver coins was reduced in 1853. As Hill moved to the podium, a reporter friend passed Bryan a note urging him to make a patriotic speech without hint of sectionalism; Bryan responded, "You will not be disappointed. Both men had electoral problems: Bland at age 61 was seen by some as a man whose time had passed; Boies was a former Republican who had once decried bimetallism.  However, Bryan did gain the support of the Populists, as well as a convention of Silver Republicans. This speech also helped to unite a fractured Democratic party. When the Republicans in June 1896 nominated former Ohio Governor William McKinley for president and passed at his request a platform strongly supporting "sound money" (the gold standard unless modified by international agreement), a number of "Silver Republicans" walked out of the convention. , "Pitchfork Ben" Tillman lived up to his nickname with an incendiary address which began with a reference to his home state's role in beginning the Civil War. It presents a jarring contrast. The 1896 Democratic National Convention followed events unique in post-Civil War American history. Although Bryan had decided on a strategy to gain the nomination—to give a speech which would make him the logical candidate in the eyes of delegates—he faced obstacles along the way. When McKinley and his advisers, such as industrialist and future senator Mark Hanna, realized that the views were more than transitory, they began intensive fundraising from corporations and the wealthy. Although Hamilton understood that adjustment might be needed from time to time as precious metal prices fluctuated, he believed that if the nation's unit of value were defined only by one of the two precious metals used for coins, the other would descend to the status of mere merchandise, unusable as a store of value. 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